Chronology of the life of Gustav Mahler

Chronology of the life of Gustav Mahler
by Henry-Louis de La Grange
• Note: Concerts and opera performances for which the conductor is not named were conducted by Mahler (GM).
1860
• 7 July: GM born at Kalischt (Kaliste) on the border between Bohemia and Moravia, the second of fourteen children. Parents: Bernhard Mahler, a Jewish café owner and distiller, born at Lipnitz, and Maria Hermann, daughter of Abraham Hermann, a soap boiler from Ledetsch (Ledec). Their first child, Isidor, dies in March 1858, at only a few months old.
• 23 October: the Mahler family moves to Iglau (Jihlava).
1861-1870
• 13 April 1861: birth of GM’s brother, Ernst.
• 18 May 1865: birth of GM’s sister, Leopoldine.
• Piano and music lessons with Franz Sturm; the violinist Johannes Brosch; the conductor of the Iglau Theatre, Franz Viktorin; Wenzel Pressburg; the double-bass player Jakob Sladky; and finally, with Heinrich Fischer, music director and conductor of the local Männergesangverein, of which GM was a member.
• 1868: birth of GM’s sister, Justine.
• October 1869: enters Iglau Grammar School.
• 13 October 1870: makes public début playing piano at a concert at the Iglau Theatre.
1871-1875
• September 1871 – March 1872: GM with the Grünfeld family in Prague.
• 11 November 1872: plays Liszt’s paraphrase of Wedding March and Dance of the Elves from Mendelssohn’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream at a concert in the assembly hall of Iglau Grammar School.
• 20 April 1873: plays Thalberg’s Fantasia on Themes from Norma at concert celebrating wedding of Archduchess Gisela and Prince Leopold of Bavaria.
• 17 May 1873: plays same piece at the Czap Hotel in Iglau.
• 18 June 1873: birth of GM’s brother, Otto.
• 13 April 1875: death of GM’s brother, Ernst.
• Summer 1875: together with his friend Josef Steiner, GM spends summer holidays at the home of Gustav Schwarz on the Morawan estates near Caslau (Caslav); works on an opera, Ernst von Schwaben.
• 10 September: enrolls at Vienna Conservatory, piano with Julius Epstein, harmony with Robert Fuchs, counterpoint and composition with Franz Krenn; later studies history of music with Adolf Prosnitz; fellow students include Hugo Wolf, Anton Krisper, Hans Rott, Rudolf Krzyzanowski and Arnold Rosé; writes numerous chamber and orchestral works that he later destroys.
1876-1878
• 1876: writes first movement of a Piano Quartet in A minor (extant).
• 2 March: Wagner conducts Lohengrin at the Court Opera (his final conducting engagement in the city).
• 23 June 1876: wins first prize for piano at Vienna Conservatory for performance of a Schubert sonata in A minor.
• 1 July: wins first prize for composition for first movement of Piano Quintet.
• 12 September: benefit concert at Czap Hotel in Iglau, at which GM plays a Chopin ballade and Schubert’s Wandererfantasie; programme also includes a (lost) violin sonata by GM.
• 1877: becomes friendly with Hugo Wolf; both are members of the Vienna Wagner Society and share the same room.
• March 1877: Wolf expelled from Conservatory.
• 16 March: GM attends Liszt’s public concert in Vienna.
• 20 June: another first prize for piano for Schumann’s Humoreske; GM declines to compete for composition prize.
• Summer: works on opera Die Argonauten (score lost).
• 12 September: enrolls in Franz Krenn’s class in counterpoint but does not complete the course. Abitur in Iglau, then enrolls at Vienna University: attends Bruckner’s Harmony lectures and courses in early Germanic literature, the history of Greek art and the history of art.
• 20 October: plays first movement of Xaver Scharwenka’s First Piano Concerto at Conservatory.
• 16 December: attends first performance of Bruckner’s Third Symphony. His transcription of this work for piano, four hands, published by Bussjäger & Rättig.
• 18 March 1878: completes text of Das klagende Lied.
• 25 April: second semester at University, where GM studies classical sculpture, history of Dutch painting and philosophy of the history of philosophy.
• 2 July: wins first prize for Scherzo from Piano Quintet and receives diploma from Conservatory.
• 11 July: prizewinners’ concert at Conservatory, at which GM performs his Quintet.
• Summer: spends vacation with Emil Freund at Seelau (Zeliv). Submits Overture of Die Argonauten to jury of Beethoven Prize but does not win.
1879-1880
• 24 April 1879: concert at Iglau Theatre, at which GM plays one of Liszt’s Hungarian Rhapsodies, Schumann’s Humoreske and a Schubert sonata in A minor.
• June/July: at Puszta Batta, Teteny, near Budapest, as music teacher to the children of Moritz Baumgarten.
• 12 August: visits Emil Freund at Seelau.
• 31 August: birth of Alma Schindler in Vienna.
• Autumn 1879 – early 1880: becomes friendly with pioneers of Socialism, Victor Adler and Engelbert Pernerstorfer, with the writers Siegfried Lipiner and Richard von Kralik, and with the physician Albert Spiegler; adopts vegetarian diet; falls in love with Josephine Poisl, the daughter of the Iglau postmaster; dedicates three songs to her.
• Winter 1879/1880: third term at University, where he attends courses in archaeology, history of ancient philosophy, history of Europe at the time of Napoleon and Hanslick’s course on the ‘history of music since the death of Beethoven’.
• Christmas at Iglau.
• 21 March 1880: completes sketches of first part of Das klagende Lied.
• April: GM re-registers at University (art and history).
• May-July: in Bad Hall to conduct operettas; works on the opera Rübezahl and at Das klagende Lied, the orchestration of which he completes in November.
• October-November: Hans Rott declared insane; GM completes Das klagende Lied and ekes out a precarious living by teaching.
• Christmas spent at Iglau.
1881-1882
• 3 September 1881 – 1 April 1882: chief conductor at Landestheater in Laibach (Ljubljana) in Slovenia, where he conducts operas by Weber, Verdi, Donizetti, Rossini, Gounod and Mozart (Die Zauberflöte) and operettas by Flotow, Johann Strauss, Offenbach, Suppé, Lecocq and others.
• 24 September: season opens with gala concert, at which GM conducts Beethoven’s Egmont Overture.
• 4 October: GM conducts his first opera, Verdi’s Il trovatore.
• 15 December: the jury of the Beethoven Prize (Brahms, Goldmark and Hans Richter) awards that year’s prize to a piano concerto by Robert Fuchs rather than to GM’s Das klagende Lied.
• 5 March 1882: fourth concert of the Laibach Philharmonic Society, at which GM is soloist in performance of Mendelssohn’s Capriccio brillant; as encores he plays Chopin’s Grande Polonaise in A flat and two of Schumann’s Waldszenen.
• 2 April: end of season at Laibach Landestheater.
• 3/4 April: stays overnight in Trieste before returning to Vienna.
• Summer: GM at Iglau, Seelau and Teteny (with the Baumgarten family); works on settings of poems by Leander and Tirso da Molina.
• 19 September: conducts Suppé’s Boccaccio at Iglau Theatre; continues to work on Rübezahl.
• Christmas spent at Iglau.
1883-1884
• 10 January – 17 March 1883: works as conductor at Königliches Städtisches Theater in Olmütz (Olomouc) in Moravia; conducts operas by Meyerbeer and Verdi, in addition to Méhul’s Joseph and Bizet’s Carmen, his performance of which impresses the stage director of the Dresden Opera, Karl Ueberhorst, and ensures his next engagement; he remains a vegetarian.
• 15 January: conducts his first opera in Olmütz, Meyerbeer’s Les Huguenots.
• 13 February: death of Richard Wagner.
• 31 March – 2 May: prepares a season of Italian operas at the Karlstheater in Vienna.
• May-June: spends part of his time with a new friend, the archaeologist and philologist Fritz Löhr, at Perchtoldsdorf, a village on the outskirts of Vienna.
• 22-31 May: in Kassel for a series of trial periods at the local theatre.
• Summer: first visit to Bayreuth for Parsifal.
• 11 August: final concert in Iglau, at which GM plays Beethoven’s Kreutzer Sonata, with Mila von Ottenfeld (violin).
KASSEL 21 August 1883 – 29 June 1885
• 21 August: GM takes up appointment at Königliches Theater in Kassel, where he conducts works by Meyerbeer, Verdi, Gounod, Flotow, Maillart, Delibes, Adam, Offenbach, Nicolai, Lortzing, Nessler, Weber’s Der Freischütz and Bizet’s Carmen.
• 1 October: official appointment as Music Director and Chorus Master to the Royal Prussian Court Theatre.
• 24-25 January 1884: a concert by the Meiningen Court Orchestra under Hans von Bülow proves a revelatory experience for GM, who writes to Bülow, offering him his services. Bülow does not reply but forwards the letter to the theatre’s first conductor.
• 23 June: a series of tableaux vivants based on Scheffel’s play Der Trompeter von Säckingen is performed with incidental music (now lost) by GM.
• Summer: spends vacation with Fritz Löhr at Perchtoldsdorf, then at Iglau.
• August: GM in Dresden, where he hears Tristan und Isolde and Così fan tutte at the Court Opera and becomes friendly with the conductor Ernst von Schuch.
• Autumn: blighted passion for Johanna Richter, a singer at the Kassel Theatre.
• December: writes texts and begins composition of Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (completed in January 1885 ?).
1885
• February/March: repeated arguments with the directors of the Kassel Theatre.
• 16 March: GM signs contract with Leipzig Opera to take effect in July 1886.
• 1 April: resigns appointment in Kassel; engaged by Deutsches Theater in Prague, which is run by the famous Wagnerian impresario Angelo Neumann.
• 20 April and 29 May: performances of Salomon Mosenthal’s Das Volkslied (‘a poem with lieder, choruses and tableaux vivants’), with incidental music (now lost) by GM.
• 29 June: highly successful performance of Mendelssohn’s Paulus at the Kassel Festival.
• 1 August: officially takes up duties as chief conductor at the Deutsches Theater in Prague.
PRAGUE 1 August 1885 – 15 July 1886
• 17 August: makes local début conducting Cherubini’s Les deux journées; he finally conducts major repertory operas such as Don Giovanni (6 September), Tannhäuser (27 September), Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (25 October), Norma (28 October), Das Rheingold (19 December) and Die Walküre (20 December); has an affair with one of the member of the ensemble, the soprano Betty Frank.
1886
• February: Die Entführung aus dem Serail, Marschner’s Hans Heiling, Lortzing’s Undine and Goldmark’s Die Königin von Saba; argument with Neumann over the tempi in the ballet in Gounod’s Faust.
• 21 February: replaces Karl Muck and conducts Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony for the first time.
• 11 April: Così fan tutte.
• 18 April: benefit concert including first performances of three of GM’s songs, Frühlingsmorgen, Ging heut’ morgens übers Feld and Hans und Grethe.
• 1 July: conducts Iphigénie en Aulide.
• 9 July: conducts Fidelio for the first time.
• 16-25 July: visits Iglau.
LEIPZIG 1 August 1886 – 17 May 1888
• 1 August: officially takes up appointment as chief conductor at the Neues Stadttheater with Arthur Nikisch as senior colleague; makes début with Lohengrin (3 August), followed by Le Prophète (8 August), Rienzi (10 August), Tannhäuser (15 August), Halévy’s La Juive (18 August), Der Freischütz (20 August), Les Huguenots (22 August), Der fliegende Holländer (25 August), Robert le diable (27 August), Die Zauberflöte (29 August), L’Africaine, Kreutzer’s Das Nachtlager von Granada, Eugen Lindner’s Ramiro, Auber’s Le Maçon and many other works.
• 26 September: Weber’s Oberon.
• 6 December: revival of Gluck’s Armide.
• December: Weber cycle with Abu Hassan and Preciosa (15 December), Der Freischütz (17 December) and Oberon (18 December).
• Christmas at Leipzig.
1887
• 6 February – 19 May: Nikisch ill; GM replaces him in Il barbiere di Siviglia (6 February) and Die Walküre (9 February); during this period he conducts 57 performances, including his first Contes d’Hoffmann and Siegfried.
• 26 March: conducts Fidelio to mark 60th anniversary of Beethoven’s death.
• 20 May: Nikisch returns; GM meets Carl von Weber, the composer’s grandson, who suggests that GM should complete the comic opera Die drei Pintos.
• 12 July: GM leaves for Iglau with Weber’s sketches for Die drei Pintos.
• 20 July: stays with Löhr in Vienna and Perchtoldsdorf, then travels via Reichenhall to Innsbruck, where he meets up with Heinrich and Rudolf Krzyzanowski; all three men then cross the Alps on foot to Lake Starnberg.
• 6 August: GM returns to Leipzig.
• 28 August: private performance of Die drei Pintos at the home of the Staegemanns, with GM at the piano.
• September: GM conducts Bruch’s Die Loreley and Nessler’s Der Trompeter von Säckingen.
• 8 October: completes Die drei Pintos.
• 13 October: first meeting with Richard Strauss.
• October: 2 Tirso da Molina-Lieder, probably composed for the Leipzig Opera.
• 13 November: conducts Tannhäuser in presence of Cosima Wagner.
• Autumn: discovers Arnim’s and Brentano’s anthology of folk poems, Des Knaben Wunderhorn.
• November: revival of Jessonda.
• 30 November: Wagner concert conducted by Nikisch and GM, who conducts extracts from Parsifal.
• 4 December: conducts Spohr’s Jessonda.
• Christmas at Leipzig.
1888
• 6 January: Aida.
• Affair with Marion von Weber, Carl’s wife; writes first Wunderhorn-Lieder (with piano) and sketches First Symphony and Todtenfeier.
• 20 January: Die drei Pintos premièred in Leipzig.
• 26 January: Don Giovanni; meeting with Tchaikovsky.
• 9-19 March: theatre closed; GM works on his First Symphony.
• 29 March: completes First Symphony.
• 3 April – 17 May: conducts Il barbiere di Siviglia, Tannhäuser, Così fan tutte, Die drei Pintos, Le Prophète, Lohengrin, Lortzing’s Der Waffenschmied, Die Zauberflöte, Der fliegende Holländer and Der Freischütz.
• May: argument with the intendant, Max Staegemann, during rehearsals for Spontini’s Fernand Cortez.
• 17 May: GM’s resignation accepted; period of uncertainty; travels to Munich, then stays with Heinrich Krzyzanowski in Starnberg.
• June: GM in Iglau, working on Todtenfeier.
• 11 July: rehearsals for Die drei Pintos in Prague.
• 10 August: completes Todtenfeier.
• 18 August: Prague première of Die drei Pintos (five performances under GM).
• 12 September: leaves Prague after another argument with Neumann.
• September: Dresden, Munich, Vienna.
• 1 October: appointed director of Hungarian Opera in Budapest.
• Autumn: reorganises theatre and rehearsal schedule.

BUDAPEST 1 October 1888 – 22 March 1891
• 26 January 1888 – 15 May 1889: GM conducts local premières (in Hungarian) of Das Rheingold (26 January) and Die Walküre (27 January) (6 performances of each); also Maillart’s Les Dragons de Villars (5 performances), Il barbiere di Siviglia and Le nozze di Figaro.
• 18 February: death of Bernhard Mahler, GM in Iglau for burial.
• 1-6 April: another visit to Iglau.
• 21 May: GM leaves for Vienna, where he stays with Löhr, then visits Iglau.
• 17 July: undergoes operation in Munich for haemorrhoids.
• 22 July: Salzburg, Bayreuth, Iglau, then Marienbad.
• Early August: Iglau.
• 20 August: returns to Budapest.
• 15 September – 15 December: conducts Lohengrin (4 performances) La Juive (2), Die lustigen Weiber von Windsor (5), Das Rheingold (1), Die Walküre (2) and Les Huguenots (1).
• 27 September: death of GM’s eldest sister, Leopoldine.
• 11 October: death of GM’s mother, Marie.
• 21 October: travels to Iglau.
• 13 November: chamber recital, including first performances of the two Leander settings and Scheiden und Meiden.
• 20 November: Budapest première of Symphonic Poem (later to become the First Symphony).
• 16 December: leaves for Vienna.
• Christmas with Löhr’s family in Vienna.
1890
• 3 January: benefit concert, including Beethoven’s Leonore Overture no. 3.
• 19 January – 1 May: conducts Die Walküre (5 performances), the Hungarian première (on 8 March) of Marschner’s Der Templer und die Jüdin (3), Das Rheingold (1) and Le nozze di Figaro.
• 14 February: benefit concert, including Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony.
• May: trip to Italy with Justine (Trieste, Venice, Milan, Florence and Genoa).
• Summer: vacation at Hinterbrühl in the Vienna Woods; completes two volumes of Wunderhorn-Lieder for voice and piano.
• 22 August: returns to Budapest.
• 16 September – 28 December: conducts Don Giovanni (5 performances), Un ballo in maschera (1), Lohengrin (2) and the Hungarian premières of Franchetti’s Asrael (20 November; 3) and Mascagni’s Cavalleria rusticana (26 December; 3).
• October: Natalie Bauer-Lechner visits GM; beginning of twelve-year friendship.
• 29 October: gala performance with Liszt’s Festklänge.
• 5 December: benefit performance at Opera with Lilli Lehmann as soloist; programme includes Mozart’s Symphony no. 40 and Weber’s Oberon Overture.
• 16 December: conducts Don Giovanni; introduced to Brahms.
1891
• 1 January: New Year’s Day spent in Vienna.
• 1 January – 16 March: conducts Cavalleria rusticana (6), Der Waffenschmied (4), Die lustigen Weiber von Windsor (2), Die Walküre (1), Mendelssohn’s Die Loreley (1), Lohengrin (2) and Don Giovanni (1).
• 22 January: Count Zichy appointed new intendant; argument with GM.
• 14 March: GM resigns.
• 16 March: final appearance in Budapest (Lohengrin).
• 22 March: leaves for Vienna.
HAMBURG 26 March 1891 – 24 April 1897
• 26 March: GM officially appointed Kapellmeister at the Hamburg Stadt-Theater.
• 29 March – 31 May: conducts Tannhäuser, Cavalleria rusticana, Siegfried, Tristan und Isolde, Der Freischütz, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Die Zauberflöte, Les deux journées, Lohengrin, Asrael, Fidelio, Der fliegende Holländer, Don Giovanni, Götterdämmerung, Die Walküre, Euryanthe, Rienzi and Das Rheingold.
• 31 March: GM wins admiration and support of Hans von Bülow for his conducting of Siegfried.
• June: two weeks in Perchtoldsdorf; sketches orchestral Wunderhorn-Lieder.
• July: Munich, Vienna, Perchtoldsdorf, Bad Gastein, Marienbad, Eger, Bayreuth; walking tour of Fichtelgebirge.
• August: visits Scandinavia: Copenhagen, Elsinore, Helsingborg, Göteborg, Moss, Oslo, Drammen, Larvik and Kristiansand, returning to Hamburg via Denmark.
• 24 August: returns to Hamburg; friendship with Adele Marcus.
• 1 September – 17 December: conducts Fidelio, Tristan und Isolde, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Tannhäuser, Asrael, Die Zauberflöte, Die Walküre, Siegfried, Anton Rubinstein’s The Demon and Don Giovanni.
• 27 November: concert in Lübeck; GM plays his Todtenfeier to Bülow, who covers his ears in protest during the performance.
• Mid-December: visits Vienna.
1892
• Completes orchestral version of Wunderhorn songs.
• 1 January – 25 May: conducts Tannhäuser, Die Königin von Saba, Siegfried, Die Walküre, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, the local première of Eugene Onegin (19 January; in the composer’s presence), Tristan und Isolde, Fidelio, Don Giovanni, Die Zauberflöte, Goetz’s Der Widerspenstigen Zähmung, Rossini’s Guillaume Tell, the Hamburg première of Bruneau’s Le Rêve (28 March) and Götterdämmerung.
• February: Schott publishes three collections of GM’s lieder for voice and piano.
• 26 April: completes Fünf Humoresken (Wunderhorn-Lieder) for voice and orchestra: Der Schildwache Nachtlied, Verlor’ne Müh, Trost im Unglück, Wer hat dies Liedlein erdacht? and Wir genießen die himmlischen Freuden; becomes friendly with Arnold Berliner.
• 29 April: first performance of two of the Wunderhorn-Lieder for voice and piano, Aus! Aus! and Nicht wiedersehen!.
• 28 May – 23 July: in London to conduct Siegfried, Tristan und Isolde, Das Rheingold, Die Walküre, Fidelio, Götterdämmerung and Tannhäuser at Covent Garden and Drury Lane theatres.
• Summer in Berchtesgaden with Justi and Natalie.
• 27 August: while returning to Hamburg via Berlin, learns of cholera epidemic in Hamburg and heads back to Berchtesgaden.
• 21 September: back in Hamburg; argument with Pollini.
• 5 October – 29 December: conducts Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Fidelio, Tannhäuser, Tristan und Isolde, Lohengrin, Die Zauberflöte, the local première of Bizet’s Djamileh (21 October), Boieldieu’s La Dame blanche, Siegfried, Die Walküre, Méhul’s Joseph, Carmen, Le nozze di Figaro, Die lustigen Weiber von Windsor and the Hamburg première of Puccini’s Le Villi (29 November).
• 12 December: replaces Bülow at subscription concert, conducting Mendelssohn’s Overture to A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Wagner’s Siegfried Idyll and Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony; that same evening in Berlin, BPO gives first performance of Der Schildwache Nachtlied and Verlor’ne Müh’ (with Amalie Joachim as soloist).
• Christmas in Hamburg with Henriette Lazarus; becomes friendly with Ferdinand Pfohl.
1893
• 2 January – 6 June: conducts Lohengrin, the first production outside Russia of Tchaikovsky’s Iolanta (3 January), Tannhäuser, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Die Zauberflöte, the local première of Mascagni’s L’amico Fritz (16 January), Siegfried, Tristan und Isolde, Fidelio, Die Walküre, Norma, Asrael, Don Giovanni, the local premières of Karl von Kaskel’s Hochzeitsmorgen and Mascagni’s I Rantzau, Beethoven’s incidental music to Egmont, Il barbiere di Siviglia, Joseph, Das Rheingold, Götterdämmerung and the local première of Pier Antonio Tasca’s A Santa Lucia (29 May).
• 19 January: completes revision of finale of First Symphony.
• 27 January: revises Scherzo of First Symphony and suppresses the Andante (Blumine).
• January: meets Anton Rubinstein at home of Henriette Lazarus.
• February: orchestrates or revises orchestration of Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen.
• 20 March: benefit concert for theatre pension fund, conducts Haydn symphony and Act One of Gluck’s Orfeo ed Euridice.
• 31 March: at traditional Good Friday concert conducts Bruckner’s Te Deum and first performance outside Austria of Mass in D minor.
• 15 April: conducts own benefit performance at Stadt-Theater (Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony and Fidelio).
• 14-30 May: Wagner cycle; by end of season GM has conducted 104 performances.
• Summer spent at Steinbach, where he writes four Wunderhorn-Lieder (Des Antonius von Padua Fischpredigt, Rheinlegendchen, Das irdische Leben and Urlicht) and two movements from the Second Symphony (Andante and Scherzo); further revises the First Symphony (with Blumine).
• July: pays first visit to Brahms at Ischl.
• 26 August: returns to Hamburg.
• September: becomes friendly with the lawyer Hermann Behn.
• 1 September 1893 – 28 May 1894: conducts 124 performances at Stadt-Theater, including Die Meistersinger, Der Freischütz, Iolanta, the local première of Franchetti’s Cristoforo Colombo (5 October), Don Giovanni, Fidelio, Tannhäuser, Siegfried, Die Zauberflöte, Tristan und Isolde, Joseph, Götterdämmerung, Faust, the local premières of Verdi’s Falstaff (2 January 1894) and The Bartered Bride (17 January 1894), Die Walküre, Carmen, Rienzi, Die Fledermaus and Das Rheingold.
• 7 September: Iolanta; final meeting with Tchaikovsky.
• 27 September: popular concert with three Humoresken (Das himmlische Leben, Verlor’ne Müh and Wer hat dies Liedlein erdacht?), three Wunderhorn-Lieder (Der Schildwache Nachtlied, Trost im Unglück and Rheinlegendchen) and “Titan” (the future First Symphony).
• 6 November: death of Tchaikovsky.
• 17 November: GM in Wiesbaden, where he conducts three Humoresken (Der Schildwache Nachtlied, Trost im Unglück and Rheinlegendchen).
• 18 November: memorial concert for Tchaikovsky (Letter Scene from Eugene Onegin, Iolanta and Romeo and Juliet).
• December 1893 – January 1894: revises Das klagende Lied.
• Christmas in Hamburg.
1894
• January: GM becomes friendly with the Czech composer Josef Bohuslav Foerster and his wife, Berta Foerster-Lauterer.
• 5 February: contract renewed for another five years.
• 12 February: death of Bülow.
• 26 February: conducts memorial concert for Bülow, including ‘Eroica’ Symphony.
• 3 March: GM’s own benefit performance (Beethoven’s Fidelio and Seventh Symphony).
• 29 March: Bülow’s funeral service, at which GM hears the chorale Aufersteh’n, which inspires the finale of his own Second Symphony.
• 29 April: completes revision of Todtenfeier, which is now integrated into the Second Symphony.
• May: annual Wagner Festival at Stadt-Theater.
• 29 May – 3 June: GM in Weimar for annual meeting of Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein, at which he conducts unsuccessful performance of ‘Titan’.
• Summer in Steinbach.
• 29 June: finishes sketch of final movement of Second Symphony.
• 25 July: completes orchestration of finale.
• 28 July – 4 August: GM in Bayreuth (where he hears Parsifal, Lohengrin and Tannhäuser), Munich and Starnberg; further revises First Symphony (without Blumine movement).
• 26 August: returns to Hamburg via Vienna.
• 15 September: Bruno Walter takes up appointment at Hamburg Stadt-Theater.
• 1 September 1894 – 30 May 1895: GM conducts a total of 134 performances, including Tannhäuser, The Bartered Bride, Tristan und Isolde, Falstaff, Fidelio, Siegfried, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, the local première of Hänsel und Gretel (25 September), Die Walküre, Die Fledermaus, Der Freischütz, Joseph, Die Zauberflöte, Smetana’s The Two Widows, Götterdämmerung, Thomas’s Mignon, Gounod’s Faust, the local première of Smetana’s The Kiss (15 December 1894), Marschner’s Hans Heiling, Bolko von Hochberg’s Der Wärwolf (28 March) and Mozart’s Don Giovanni.
• 22 October 1894 – 11 March 1895: GM conducts eight subscription concerts, including the Andante from Schubert’s D minor String Quartet, a concerto and symphony by Anton Rubinstein, the preludes from Strauss’s Guntram and Bruckner’s Fourth Symphony.
• 18 December: completes orchestration of final movement of Second Symphony.
1895
• 6 February: suicide of Otto Mahler.
• 1 March: GM’s own benefit performance (Beethoven’s Sixth Symphony and Fidelio).
• 4 March: conducts first performance in Berlin of first three movements of Second Symphony.
• 11 March: subscription concert (Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony).
• May: annual Wagner Festival at Stadt-Theater.
• Summer spent at Steinbach with Justi and Natalie; writes five movements of Third Symphony (all except first).
• July: second visit to Brahms at Ischl, where he takes the waters for a few days.
• 29 August: returns to Hamburg.
• September: Anna von Mildenburg joins Stadt-Theater ensemble; a liaison develops that lasts until his departure for Vienna.
• 1 September 1895 – 31 May 1896: GM conducts 138 performances, including Hänsel und Gretel, Der Freischütz, Die Walküre, Don Giovanni, Siegfried, Fidelio, The Bartered Bride, Tannhäuser, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Carmen, the local première of Massenet’s Werther (10 October), Götterdämmerung, Haydn’s Lo speziale, Der fliegende Holländer, Die Zauberflöte, the local première of Bruneau’s L’Attaque du moulin (30 November), Oberon, Le nozze di Figaro, the local première of Kienzl’s Der Evangelimann (6 January 1896), Norma, the local première of Smetana’s Dalibor (11 February), Millöcker’s Der Bettelstudent, Die Fledermaus, La traviata (in Italian, 2 May), Das Rheingold, Marschner’s Der Vampyr and Franchetti’s Cristoforo Colombo.
• 13 December: conducts first complete performance of Second Symphony in Berlin.
• Christmas in Hamburg.
1896
• January: final revisions to Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen.
• 16 March: GM in Berlin to conduct “Titan” (now simply entitled Symphony in D major), Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen and Todtenfeier.
• 21 March: conducts own benefit performance (Die Walküre).
• 11 April: completes orchestration of second movement of Third Symphony.
• May: annual Wagner Festival at Stadt-Theater.
• Summer at Steinbach, where he composes Wunderhorn-Lied, Lob des hohen Verstandes, and first movement of Third Symphony.
• 10-15 July: third visit to Brahms at Ischl, also visits Hallstadt, St Gilgen, Mondsee and Aussee.
• 17 July: Bruno Walter at Steinbach until end of month.
• 27 July: completes sketch of first movement of Third Symphony.
• 1-5 August: visits Berchtesgaden, Ischl and Aussee.
• 9-13 August: in Bayreuth for complete Ring.
• 27 August: returns to Hamburg.
• 1 September 1896 – 24 April 1897: conducts 81 performances at Stadt-Theater, including La traviata, Carmen, Le nozze di Figaro, Tristan und Isolde, Die Walküre, Fidelio, Norma, Tannhäuser, Le Prophète, Die Zauberflöte, Don Giovanni, the local première of Goldmark’s Das Heimchen am Herd (4 December), a new production of Cherubini’s Les deux journées (5 January 1897), Siegfried, the local première of Andrea Chénier (3 February), The Bartered Bride and Götterdämmerung.
• 11 October: death of Bruckner.
• Autumn: GM lays the groundwork for his Vienna appointment by a series of letters and personal appeals.
• 9 November: Nikisch conducts the Blumenstück from the Third Symphony at the Berlin Philharmonie.
• 7 December: Weingartner conducts Blumenstück in Hamburg.
• 14 December: GM conducts first two movements of Second Symphony at Lisztverein concert in Leipzig.
• December: increasing tensions with Pollini.
1897
• 15 January: Schuch conducts second, third and fourth movements of Second Symphony in Dresden in the composer’s presence; meeting with Wilhelm Jahn, director of the Vienna Court Opera.
• 21 January: Nikisch conducts Blumenstück at Leipzig Gewandhaus.
• February: Second Symphony (two piano and orchestral scores) published by Hofmeister.
• 23 February: converts to Catholicism.
• 9 March: conducts second, third and sixth movements of Third Symphony at one of Weingartner’s Königliche Kappelle concerts in Berlin.
• 12-16 March: GM in Moscow for Russian Musical Society concert.
• 19-25 March: GM in Munich for Kaim concert.
• 28-31 March: GM in Budapest for performance of Blumenstück.
• 1 April: brief visit to Vienna.
• 3 April: death of Brahms; Vienna Secession founded.
• 6 April: Brahms buried.
• 8 April: GM’s appointment as Kapellmeister at the Vienna Court Opera officially announced.
• 7-25 April: bids farewell to Hamburg.
• 24 April: GM’s own benefit and farewell performance at the Stadt-Theater (‘Eroica’ and Fidelio).
• 26 April: arrives in Vienna.
VIENNA 26 April 1897 – 9 December 1907
• 5-6 May: GM in Venice to see the two different versions of La bohème by Leoncavallo and Puccini.
• 11 May: triumphant début at Court Opera with Lohengrin.
• 29 May: Die Zauberflöte.
• 5 June: Der fliegende Holländer.
• 11 June: severe attack of pharyngitis; goes on sick leave, which he spends in Kitzbühel and Steinach am Brenner.
• 1 July: visits Steinbach am Brenner, Vahrn near Brixen in the South Tyrol, first briefly tours the Pustertal (Toblach).
• 13 July: named substitute director of Court Opera.
• 27 July: returns to Vienna.
• 1 August 1897 – 3 June 1898: conducts 107 performances at Court Opera.
• 1 August: Lohengrin.
• 14 August: Le nozze di Figaro.
• 17 August: Der Freischütz; renews contact with Hugo Wolf.
• 25 August: Das Rheingold.
• 26 August: Die Walküre.
• 28 August: Siegfried.
• 29 August: Götterdämmerung (with Waltraute scene reinstated).
• 11 September: Lortzing’s Zar und Zimmermann.
• 27 September: signs contract with Weinberger for publication of Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen.
• 4 October: Dalibor.
• 8 October: GM appointed director of Vienna Opera.
• 16 October: new production of Die Zauberflöte.
• 24 October: Tristan und Isolde.
• 28 October: Tannhäuser.
• 31 October: performance of Die Fledermaus in the composer’s presence.
• 19 November: local première of Eugene Onegin.
• 4 December: new production of Der fliegende Holländer.
• 18 December: Anna von Mildenburg joins Vienna Court Opera, to be followed soon afterwards by the Wagnerian tenor Erik Schmedes; Weinberger publishes Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen.
• Christmas at Semmering.
1898
• 22 January: local première of Djamileh.
• 8 February: first complete performance of Das Rheingold in Vienna.
• 11 February: first complete performance of Siegfried in Vienna.
• 14 February: Baron August von Plappart appointed intendant; conflict with GM.
• 23 February: Viennese première of Leoncavallo’s La bohème; violent arguments with the composer.
• 3 March: conducts First Symphony in Prague.
• 6 March: Sylvain Dupuis conducts Second Symphony in Liège.
• 29 April: new production of Aida.
• 2 June: marriage of Emma Mahler and Eduard Rosé.
• 6 June: operation for haemorrhoids.
• Summer: convalesces in Vahrn; completes two Wunderhorn-Lieder (Lied des Verfolgten im Turm and Wo die schönen Trompeten blasen).
• 2 August: returns to Vienna.
• 15 August 1898 – 8 June 1899: conducts 97 performances at Court Opera.
• 4 September: new production of Götterdämmerung.
• 20 September: restaged production of Das Rheingold.
• 22 September: restaged production of Die Walküre.
• 23 September: restaged production of Siegfried.
• 24 September: appointed chief conductor of Vienna Philharmonic.
• 25 September: Götterdämmerung (including Norns’ Scene, never before heard in Vienna).
• 4 October: new production of La Dame blanche.
• 22 October: new production of Der Freischütz.
• 29 October: first complete performance of Tristan und Isolde in Vienna.
• 6 November 1898 – 19 March 1899: conducts eight Philharmonic concerts, including Beethoven’s String Quartet no. 11 arranged for string orchestra, the world première of Dvorák’s symphonic poem Pisen bohatyrská and the local premières of Bizet’s Roma, Goetz’s Symphony in F major and Bruckner’s Sixth Symphony (in GM’s own edition, with cuts and instrumental retouchings); moves to flat at 2 Auenbruggergasse, off the Rennweg.
• 9 December: local première of Reznicek’s Donna Diana.
1899
• Publication of First Symphony.
• 17 January: world première of Goldmark’s Die Kriegsgefangene.
• 18-23 January: in Liège for performance of Second Symphony.
• 10 February: new productions of Haydn’s Lo speziale and Lortzing’s Die Opernprobe.
• 19 February: Novitäten-Konzert at which GM conducts Preludes to Acts One and Three of Guntram; argument with intendant.
• 8 March: conducts First Symphony in Frankfurt am Main.
• 13 and 14 March: conducts two performances of Lorenzo Perosi’s oratorio La risurrezione di Lazzaro.
• 27 March: conducts local première of Siegfried Wagner’s Der Bärenhäuter.
• 9 April: conducts Second Symphony at Nicolai Concert.
• 9 May: new production of Auber’s Fra Diavolo.
• 4 June: conducts Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony at Deutsches Theater in Prague.
• Summer at Alt-Aussee with Natalie, Justi and Arnold Rosé; writes another Wunderhorn-Lied (Revelge) and the first two movements (?) of the Fourth Symphony; corrects proofs of Third Symphony and Das klagende Lied.
• 21 July: Siegfried Lipiner at Aussee.
• 1 August: returns to Vienna.
• 10 August 1899 – 5 June 1900: conducts 94 performances at Court Opera; Natalie and Justi choose site at Maiernigg, where GM joins them for two days in late August.
• 5 September: new production of Donizetti’s La Fille du régiment.
• September: Selma Kurz arrives in Vienna; brief liaison.
• 29 September: revival of Fra Diavolo.
• 23 October: local première of Anton Rubinstein’s The Demon.
• 5 November 1899 – 1 April 1900: conducts eight Philharmonic concerts, including the local première of Strauss’s Aus Italien, Dvorák’s Holoubek, Brahms’s Variations on a Theme by Joseph Haydn and Third Symphony and Bruckner’s Fourth Symphony.
• 26 November: first complete performance of Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg in Vienna.
1900
• Anti-Semitic campaign against GM; friendship with Henriette Mankiewicz.
• 14 January: fifth Philharmonic concert, including two Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (Ging heut’ morgens übers Feld and Die zwei blauen Augen) and three Wunderhorn-Lieder (Das irdische Leben, Wo die schönen Trompeten blasen and Wer hat dies Liedlein erdacht?) sung by Selma Kurz.
• 19 January: guest performance by Melba as Violetta in La traviata.
• 22 January: world première of Zemlinsky’s Es war einmal.
• 9 February: recital by Selma Kurz, including Erinnerung, Hans und Grethe and Scheiden und Meiden.
• February: departure of Hans Richter and arrival of Franz Schalk at Court Opera.
• 18 February: conducts Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony at Nicolai Concert.
• March: Weinberger publishes Wunderhorn-Lieder.
• 22 March: local première of Tchaikovsky’s Iolanta.
• 7-15 April: visits Maiernigg, Abbazia (Opatija) on the Istrian Peninsula and Venice with Justi and Natalie.
• 11-19 May: week of Italian operas at Court Opera, including local première of Giordano’s Fedora (16 May); GM makes Giordano’s acquaintance.
• 26 May: new production of Carmen, with the recently contracted Marie Gutheil-Schoder.
• 15-22 June: in Paris for four concerts with the Vienna Philharmonic at the Trocadéro and Châtelet as part of the World Exhibition; GM becomes acquainted with Paul and Sophie Clemenceau.
• Summer: rents Villa Antonia at Maiernigg.
• 15-19 July: tour of the Pustertal.
• 6 August: completes Fourth Symphony.
• 10 August: bicycle tour to Velden.
• 2 September 1900 – 3 June 1901: conducts 54 performances at Court Opera.
• 4 October: new production of Così fan tutte using revolving stage.
• 20 October: in Munich for successful performance of Second Symphony at a Hugo Wolf-Verein concert.
• 4 November 1900 – 24 February 1901: conducts six Philharmonic concerts, including his own First Symphony, Tchaikovsky’s Manfred and Bruckner’s Fifth Symphony.
• 18 November: First Symphony a failure at the second Philharmonic Concert.
• Christmas vacation spent copying and orchestrating Fourth Symphony with a view to its publication.
• 27 December: first complete performance of Lohengrin in Vienna.
1901
• January: Richard Strauss in Vienna; meeting with GM.
• 21 January: new production of Rienzi.
• 23 January: the tenor Leo Slezak makes his Court Opera début.
• 27 January: GM conducts Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony at Nicolai Concert in a performing edition with his own instrumental retouchings.
• 17 February: first performance of Das klagende Lied at the Vienna Musikverein.
• 24 February: Philharmonic concert in the afternoon (Bruckner’s Fifth Symphony, with cuts) and Die Zauberflöte in the evening; afterwards GM suffers a severe intestinal haemorrhage that almost costs him his life.
• 3 March: GM’s salary increased.
• 4 March: operation for haemorrhoids.
• 20 March – 6 April: convalesces at Abbazia with Natalie and Justi.
• 1 April: resigns as conductor of Philharmonic concerts and is replaced by mediocre Joseph Hellmesberger, the junior.
• 29 April: new production of Die Königin von Saba.
• 11 May: new production of Tannhäuser.
• 5 June: arrives at Maiernigg for his first summer in the recently completed villa; works in his Komponierhäuschen, which had been finished the previous year.
• Summer: completes three Kindertotenlieder (nos. 1, 3 and 4), the first four Rückert Lieder, the last Wunderhorn-Lied (Der Tamboursg’sell) and (almost certainly) the first three movements of the Fifth Symphony.
• 26 August: returns to Vienna; final break with Natalie Bauer-Lechner.
• 3 September 1901 – 21 May 1902: conducts 36 performances at Court Opera.
• 27 August: Bruno Walter engaged by Court Opera.
• 4 October: new production of Die lustigen Weiber von Windsor.
• 7 November: meets Alma Schindler at home of Sophie Clemenceau’s brother-in-law, Emil Zuckerkandl.
• 11 November: first performance at Court Opera of Les Contes d’Hoffmann.
• 25 November: first performance of Fourth Symphony with Kaim Orchestra in Munich; a resounding failure.
• November: Kaim Orchestra goes on tour with Fourth Symphony under Weingartner.
• 16 December: conducts Fourth Symphony with Tonkünstler-Orchester in Berlin (rest of programme conducted by Richard Strauss).
• 20 December: Schuch conducts Second Symphony in Dresden in GM’s presence.
• 27 December: official announcement of engagement of GM and Alma; serious dispute with Philharmonic over nomination of musicians from the Court Opera orchestra as members.
1902
• January: Doblinger publishes Fourth Symphony.
• 12 January: conducts performance of Fourth Symphony with Vienna Philharmonic; repeated on 20 January with Das klagende Lied.
• 29 January: Viennese première of Strauss’s Feuersnot in the composer’s presence.
• 30 January – 1 February: three days rest at Semmering.
• 9 March: GM and Alma marry.
• 10 March: marriage of Justine and Arnold Rosé.
• 16-27 March: conducts three concerts in St Petersburg.
• 15 April: opening of Beethoven Exhibition organized by Vienna Secession around Max Klinger’s Beethoven Monument; GM conducts extract of Ninth Symphony Finale in an arrangement for winds.
• April: arguments with singers; meeting with the painter Alfred Roller.
• 9 June: annual meeting of Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein in Krefeld; triumphant first complete performance of Third Symphony, which is published by Weinberger.
• Summer at Maiernigg.
• July: first arguments with Alma; excursion to Toblach and Misurina.
• August: writes Liebst du um Schönheit and final movements of Fifth Symphony.
• 27 August: returns to Vienna.
• September: Weinberger publishes Das klagende Lied.
• 21 September 1902 – 29 May 1903: conducts 50 performances at Court Opera.
• 29 October: new production of Les Huguenots.
• 3 November: birth of Maria Anna (Putzi).
• 9 December: local première of Tchaikovsky’s The Queen of Spades.
1903
• 19 January: new production of Euryanthe.
• 23 January: Fourth Symphony in Wiesbaden.
• 21 February: new production of Tristan und Isolde with sets by Alfred Roller.
• 22 February: death of Hugo Wolf in an asylum.
• March: Strauss talks GM into joining the Genossenschaft deutscher Tonsetzer (Guild of German Composers).
• 24 March: local première of Charpentier’s Louise in the composer’s presence.
• 2 and 4 April: conducts First Symphony at Lemberg (Lvov).
• 11 May: new production of Aida.
• 15 June: conducts Second Symphony in Basle Cathedral as part of annual meeting of Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein.
• Summer at Maiernigg, where he writes first three movements of Sixth Symphony.
• 20-24 July: excursion to Toblach.
• 28 August: returns to Vienna and for a few days stays at the Kahlenberg Hotel.
• 3 September 1903 – 18 June 1904: conducts 40 performances at Court Opera.
• 9 September: level of orchestra pit at Court Opera lowered.
• September: Court Opera début of baritone Friedrich Weidemann.
• 4 October: contract with Peters for Fifth Symphony.
• 13 October: new production of La Juive.
• 18-26 October: first visit to Holland.
• 21 October: Henry Wood conducts First Symphony in London.
• 22 and 23 October: conducts Third Symphony in Amsterdam.
• 25 October: conducts First Symphony in Amsterdam.
• 25 November: Francesco Spetrino conducts first performance of Puccini’s La bohème at the Court Opera.
• 2 December: GM conducts Third Symphony in Frankfurt am Main.
• 7 December: argument with stage crew at Court Opera.
• 18 December: Oskar Nedbal conducts Second Symphony in Prague in Alma’s presence.
1904
• 4 January: new production of Der Waffenschmied.
• 19 January: Euryanthe in GM’s own version.
• 1 February: conducts Third Symphony in Heidelberg.
• 2 February: conducts Third Symphony in Mannheim.
• February: meets the writer Gerhart Hauptmann.
• 18 February: Viennese première of Wolf’s Der Corregidor.
• 25 February: conducts Third Symphony in Prague.
• 1 March: attends second performance of Schoenberg’s Verklärte Nacht.
• 23 March: conducts Fourth Symphony in Mainz.
• 25 March: conducts Third Symphony in Cologne.
• 30 March – 4 April: spends Easter vacation at Abbazia.
• April: Schoenberg and Zemlinsky found Vereinigung schaffender Tonkünstler Wiens (Society of composers in Vienna).
• 12 April: quarrel with Leo Slezak.
• 3 May: first performance of Falstaff at the Cout Opera.
• 15 June: birth of Anna Justine (Gucki); Alma ill for three weeks.
• 21 June: leaves for Maiernigg; completes second and fifth Kindertotenlieder for Vereinigung.
• Summer: completes final movement of Sixth Symphony and the two Nachtmusiken of Seventh Symphony.
• 11-14 July: excursion to Toblach and Misurina.
• 15 July: Alma arrives at Maiernigg.
• Mid-August: another excursion to the Dolomites.
• 6 September 1904 – 5 June 1905: conducts 40 performances at Court Opera.
• September: Peters publishes Fifth Symphony.
• 7 October: new production of Fidelio with designs by Roller.
• 12-19 October: rehearsals in Cologne.
• 19 October: conducts first performance of Fifth Symphony in Cologne.
• 20-28 October: second visit to Holland.
• 23 October: conducts two performances of Fourth Symphony in Amsterdam.
• 26 October: conducts Second Symphony in Amsterdam.
• 6 November: Walter Damrosch conducts Fourth Symphony with New York Symphony Orchestra.
• 23 November: GM conducts Strauss’s Symphonia domestica at Vereinigung concert in Vienna.
• 28 November: conducts Third Symphony in Leipzig.
• 14 and 22 December: conducts Third Symphony with Vienna Philharmonic.
1905
• 23 January: new production of Das Rheingold with designs by Roller.
• 25 January: premières of Schoenberg’s Pelleas und Melisande and Zemlinsky’s Die Seejungfrau at Vereinigung concert in Vienna.
• 27 January: Fifth Symphony proves a failure when conducted by Schuch in Dresden.
• 29 January: first performance of the Kindertotenlieder, the four Rückert Lieder for voice and orchestra, four Wunderhorn-Lieder from 1893-98 and two Wunderhorn songs from 1899-1901; meeting with Webern.
• 20 February: the Fifth Symphony proves a failure when conducted by Arthur Nikisch in Berlin.
• 26 February: first performance in France of GM’s music, the Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen at the Concerts Lamoureux.
• 2 March: Leo Blech conducts Fifth Symphony in Prague.
• March: meeting with Oskar Fried.
• 13 March: conducts Fifth Symphony in Hamburg; meeting with the poet Richard Dehmel.
• 24 March: Frank van der Stucken conducts Fifth Symphony in Cincinnati.
• 6 April: Court Opera première of Pfitzner’s Die Rose vom Liebesgarten in presence of composer.
• 15 April: contract with Kahnt for Kindertotenlieder, Rückert-Lieder and last two Wunderhorn-Lieder.
• 3 May: fire at Opera during performance of Die Zauberflöte conducted by GM.
• 15 May: Secession dissolved.
• May: Max Reinhardt in Vienna; meeting with GM.
• 21 May: conducts Fifth Symphony in Strasbourg; Strauss plays GM Salome at the piano; meeting with General Picquart, Paul Clemenceau, Paul Painlevé and General de Lallemand.
• 22 May: conducts all-Beethoven programme, including Ninth Symphony, in Strasbourg.
Mahler conducting the Beethoven 9th Symphony in Strasbourg, France (1905)
[Centre Documentation Musicale-BGM]
• 1 June: concert of orchestral Lieder at annual meeting of Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein in Graz (Der Schildwache Nachtlied, Das irdische Leben, Der Tambourg’sell, Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen, Lied des Verfolgten im Turm, Des Antonius von Padua Fischpredigt, Revelge and the Kindertotenlieder).
• 5 June: conducts Feuersnot in Vienna for the members of the Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein.
• 6 June: Bruno Walter conducts Die Rose vom Liebesgarten in Vienna for members of the Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein.
• 15 June: GM arrives in Maiernigg.
• 25-26 June: excursion to Toblach and Misurina.
• Summer: contract with Kahnt for publication of Sixth Symphony; Kahnt publishes Kindertotenlieder, Rückert-Lieder and last two Wunderhorn-Lieder.
• 15 August: completes Seventh Symphony.
• 23 August: returns to Vienna.
• End of August: visits Edlach, Semmering and Dornbach, where he stays with Hugo Conrat.
• 5 September 1905 – 8 June 1906: conducts 57 performances at Court Opera.
• September: brief visit to Göding (Hodonin), where he stays with Fritz Redlich; another meeting with Oskar Fried.
• Autumn: long tussle with Viennese censor over Salome.
• 25 October: Henry Wood conducts Fourth Symphony in London.
• 8 November: Fried conducts Second Symphony in Berlin in composer’s presence; meets Otto Klemperer.
• 9 November: records four piano rolls at the Welte studios in Leipzig.
• 24 November: new production of Così fan tutte with Roller sets, the first of several productions to mark the Mozart sesquicentenary (recitatives accompanied by the harpsichord).
• 1 December: conducts Fifth Symphony, Mozart’s “Jupiter” Symphony and Beethoven’s Coriolan Overture in Trieste.
• 7 December: conducts local première of Fifth Symphony at Vienna Konzertverein.
• 20 December: conducts Fifth Symphony in Breslau.
• 21 December: new production of Don Giovanni with designs by Roller.
1906
• January: Universal Edition publishes new edition of Fourth Symphony.
• 29 January: new production of Die Entführung aus dem Serail with Roller sets.
• February: Universal Edition publishes new edition of Third Symphony.
• 2 and 3 February: Wilhelm Gericke conducts Fifth Symphony in Boston.
• 15 February: Gericke conducts Fifth Symphony with Boston Symphony Orchestra in New York.
• 27 February: Franz Schalk conducts new production of Lohengrin with designs by Roller.
• 5 March: GM conducts Fifth Symphony in Antwerp.
• 7-12 March: third visit to Holland.
• 8 March: conducts Fifth Symphony, Kindertotenlieder and Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen in Amsterdam.
• 10 and 11 March: conducts Das klagende Lied in Amsterdam.
• 30 March: new production of Le nozze di Figaro with Roller sets.
• May: Universal Edition publishes new edition of First and Second Symphonies.
• 16 May: Austrian première of Salome in Graz conducted by Strauss in presence of GM and Alma.
• 27 May: conducts first performance of Sixth Symphony at annual meeting of Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein in Essen.
• 1 June: new production of Die Zauberflöte with designs by Roller.
• Summer spent at Maiernigg, where GM is visited by Erich Wolfgang Korngold and his father; works on the Eighth Symphony.
• 18 and 20 August: conducts Le nozze di Figaro at Salzburg.
• 4 September: returns to Vienna.
• 5 September 1906 – 19 May 1907: conducts 41 performances at Court Opera.
• 4 October: Bruno Walter conducts Viennese première of Camille Erlanger’s Le Juif polonais.
• 5-6 October: Caruso gives two guest performances at Court Opera (Aida and Rigoletto).
• 8 October: Fried conducts Sixth Symphony in Berlin in GM’s presence.
• 9 October: Zemlinsky takes up appointment at Court Opera.
• 24 October: conducts Third Symphony in Breslau.
• 3 November: new production of Goetz’s Der Widerspenstigen Zähmung.
• 6 November: GM in Munich, where he meets the Swiss writer William Ritter.
• 8 November: conducts Sixth Symphony in Munich.
• 10 November: Fried conducts Second Symphony in St Petersburg.
• 11 November: GM conducts First Symphony in Brünn [Brno].
• November: Kahnt publishes Sixth Symphony.
• 28 November: Franz Schalk conducts Viennese première of d’Albert’s Flauto solo.
• 3 December: GM conducts Third Symphony in Graz (repeated on 23rd).
• 25 December: new production of Il barbiere di Siviglia with Selma Kurz.
1907
• 1 January: start of press campaign against GM.
• 4 January: conducts Sixth Symphony at Vienna Konzertverein.
• 14 January: conducts Third Symphony in Berlin, where he meets Strauss.
• 18 January: conducts Fourth Symphony in Frankfurt am Main.
• 20 January: conducts First Symphony in Linz.
• 4 February: new production of Die Walküre with designs by Roller.
• 5 February: attends first performance of Schoenberg’s First String Quartet.
• 8 February: attends first performance of Schoenberg’s Kammersymphonie.
• 14 February: Johannes Messchaert gives recital in Berlin, with GM at the piano (Kindertotenlieder, Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, four Rückert-Lieder and five Wunderhorn-Lieder for voice and piano).
• 27 February: Bruno Walter conducts new production of La Muette de Portici with designs by Roller.
• 18 March: new production of Iphigénie en Aulide with Roller sets (last new production under Mahler).
• 25 March and 1 April: conducts two concerts in Rome; the programme of the first comprises Beethoven’s “Eroica”, the Overture to Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg and the Prelude and “Liebestod” from Tristan und Isolde; that of the second includes Tchaikovsky’s Romeo and Juliet, the Adagietto from GM’s Fifth Symphony, the Euryanthe Overture and Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony.
• 25 April: renewed press campaign against Mahler.
• 25 May: Julius Prüwer conducts Viennese première of Salome at the Deutsches Volkstheater.
• 1 June: Julius Lehnert conducts première of Roller’s ballet Rübezahl.
• 5 June: in Berlin for meeting with Heinrich Conried, director of New York Met.
• 11 June: official announcement of GM’s contract with Met (signed on 21st).
• 30 June: joins Alma and children at Maiernigg.
• 12 July: Maria Anna (Putzi) dies of diphtheria; GM and Alma leave Maiernigg and spend rest of summer at Schluderbach near Toblach.
• 19 August: Weingartner announced as Mahler’s successor.
• 24 August: returns to Vienna.
• 11 September – 15 October: conducts seven performances.
• 4-11 October: second series of guest performances by Caruso (two performances of Aida and one each of La bohème and Rigoletto).
• 5 October: GM freed from his obligations as of 31 December.
• 15 October: last performance at the Court Opera: Fidelio.
• 19 October: leaves for Russia.
• 26 October: conducts Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony, Berlioz’s Carnaval romain, Wagner’s Overture to Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg and Beethoven’s Ah! Perfido in St Petersburg.
• 28 October: leaves for Helsinki, where he meets Sibelius, the painter Aksel Gallén-Kallela and the architect Eliel Saarinen.
• 1 November: conducts Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony and Coriolan Overture, the Prelude and “Liebestod” from Tristan und Isolde and the Overture to Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg in Helsinki.
• 9 November: returns to St Petersburg, where he conducts his own Fifth Symphony, Beethoven’s Coriolan Overture and the Prelude and “Liebestod” from Tristan und Isolde.
• 12 November: returns to Vienna.
• 24 November: farewell concert (Second Symphony).
• 9 December: leaves for Paris and New York; among those present at the station are Schoenberg, Berg, Webern, Klimt, Roller and many others.
• 11 December: sees Tristan und Isolde at the Paris Opéra.
• 21 December: arrives in New York and settles in suite at the Majestic Hotel.
NEW YORK 21 December 1907 – 8 April 1911
1908
• 1 January: conducts first of seven performances of Tristan und Isolde (five in New York and one each in Philadelphia and Boston).
• 23 January: conducts first of six performances of Don Giovanni (four in New York and one each in Philadelphia and Boston).
• 7 February: conducts first of six performances of Die Walküre (four in New York and one each in Philadelphia and Boston).
• 19 February: conducts first of five performances of Siegfried (four in New York and one in Philadelphia).
• 7-12 March: conducts Die Walküre, Don Giovanni and Tristan und Isolde in Boston.
• 20 March: conducts first of three performances of Fidelio in New York.
• 23 April: leaves New York.
• 2 May: arrives at Cuxhaven.
• 8 May: GM in Wiesbaden, where he conducts his own First Symphony, Mendelssohn’s Fingal’s Cave Overture and Beethoven’s Leonore Overture no. 3.
• May: Kunstschau Exhibition in Vienna.
• 23 May: conducts Philharmonic concert in Prague (Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony and Coriolan Overture), Prelude to Tristan und Isolde and Overture to The Bartered Bride).
• Summer in Toblach (Alt-Schluderbach) working on Das Lied von der Erde.
• 1 August: completes draft-score of third movement (Von der Jugend).
• 14 August: completes draft-score of first movement (Das Trinklied vom Jammer der Erde).
• 21 August: completes piano-version of fourth movement (Von der Schönheit).
• 1 September: completes draft-score of sixth movement (Der Abschied).
• 19 September: conducts first performance of Seventh Symphony in Prague.
• 27 October: conducts Seventh Symphony in Munich.
• 9 November: conducts Vereinskonzert in Hamburg, including Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony.
• 11 November: sets sail from Cuxhaven.
• 21 November: arrives in New York, where he stays at the Savoy.
• 29 November: conducts first of three concerts with New York Symphony Orchestra (Schumann’s First Symphony, Beethoven’s Coriolan Overture, Overture to The Bartered Bride, Overture to Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg).
• 8 December: conducts his own Second Symphony at second NYSO concert.
• 13 December: conducts third NYSO concert (Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony, Wagner’s Faust Overture and Weber’s Oberon Overture).
• 22 December: first performance of Schoenberg’s Second String Quartet in Vienna.
• 23 December: conducts first of four performances of Tristan und Isolde (three in New York and one in Philadelphia).
1909
• 13 January: conducts first of eight performances of Le nozze di Figaro (six in New York and one each in Brooklyn and Philadelphia).
• 15 January: Richard Strauss conducts Fourth Symphony in Berlin.
• 6 February: Marcella Sembrich bids farewell to Met (GM conducts March from Act III of Le nozze di Figaro).
• 19 February: local première of The Bartered Bride (five performances in New York and one each in Philadelphia [25th] and Brooklyn [15 March]).
• 20 February: conducts Fidelio at Met.
• 31 March: conducts ‘trial’ concert with New York Philharmonic (Schumann’s Manfred Overture, Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony and Wagner’s Siegfried Idyll and Tannhäuser Overture).
• 6 April: second Philharmonic concert (Beethoven’s Egmont Overture and Ninth Symphony).
• 9 April: sets sail from New York.
• 19-30 April: GM in Paris, where he sits for Rodin and meets Alfredo Casella.
• 1 May: returns to Vienna.
• 2 May: Joseph Lassalle conducts the first performance in France of the First Symphony with the Munich Tonkünstler-Orchester.
• End of May: meets Edgar Varèse.
• 7 June: GM grants Universal Edition the rights to all works previously published by Weinberger and others.
• 26 June: contract with Universal Edition for publication of Eighth Symphony.
• Summer spent in Toblach where he works on Ninth Symphony and is visited by Richard Strauss; excursion to Salzburg.
• 2 September: completes draft orchestral score of Ninth Symphony.
• 17 September: returns to Vienna.
• Late September: stays with the Redlichs in Göding.
• 26 September – 7 October: fourth visit to Holland.
• 2 October: conducts Seventh Symphony in The Hague.
• 3 October: conducts Seventh Symphony in Amsterdam.
• 7 October: conducts Seventh Symphony and Overture to Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg in Amsterdam.
• 8-12 October: joins Alma in Paris and again sits for Rodin.
• 12 October: sets sail from Cherbourg.
• 19 October: arrives in New York.
• 26 October: Bruno Walter conducts Third Symphony in Vienna.
• 4 November 1909 – 2 April 1910: GM conducts 44 concerts with NYPO, including a series of six historical concerts. Notable works included in the programmes are GM’s own First Symphony, Strauss’s Till Eulenspiegel and two preludes from Guntram, Dvorák’s Scherzo capriccioso, Pfitzner’s Christ-Elflein Overture, Bruckner’s Fourth Symphony, Rakhmaninov’s Third Piano Concerto (with the composer himself at the piano), Busoni’s Turandot Suite and Debussy’s Nocturnes.
• 3 December: Richard Strauss conducts First Symphony in Berlin.
• 16 December: GM conducts his own First Symphony, Schubert’s Eighth and Beethoven’s Coriolan Overture in New York.
• December: Bote & Bock publish pocket score of Seventh Symphony.
1910
• 6 January: conducts Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique, Beethoven’s Fifth Piano Concerto (with Busoni as soloist) and Overture to Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg; the occasion is a triumphant success.
• 26 January: fourth historical concert (Brahms’s Third Symphony, GM’s Kindertotenlieder with Ludwig Wüllner, Dvorák’s V prírode, songs by Weingartner and Wolf and the Overture to The Bartered Bride).
• 29 January: the pianist Josef Weiss throws a tantrum and walks out of a rehearsal of Schumann’s Piano Concerto.
• 17-18 February: Philharmonic concert (Tchaikovsky’s Romeo and Juliet, Debussy’s Three Nocturnes, Wagner’s Faust Overture and Siegfried Idyll and Berlioz’s Carnaval romain).
• 23-26 February: first American tour, with Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique performed in New Haven, Springfield, Providence and Boston.
• 5 March: first American performance of Tchaikovsky’s The Queen of Spades (4 performances in all).
• 1-2 April: last Philharmonic concert of the season (Beethoven’s Choral Fantasy and Ninth Symphony).
• 5 April: sets sail from New York.
• 11 April: arrives in Cherbourg.
• Betw. 12 and 16 April: Pierné gives dinner party for Mahler; Claude Debussy, Paul Dukas, Gabriel Fauré and Alfred Bruneau are present.
• 17 April: conducts his Second Symphony at the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris (Concerts Colonne).
• 19 April – 1 May: conducts two concerts in Rome (a third is cancelled because of the poor quality of the orchestra).
• 28 April: Augusteo Concert (Tchaikovsky’s Sixth Symphony, Overture to Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Siegfried Idyll and Tannhäuser Overture).
• 21 May: signs contract with Universal Edition for Das Lied von der Erde and Ninth Symphony; buys land in Semmering.
• 14-26 June: preliminary rehearsals for Eighth Symphony in Munich.
• June-July: Alma in Tobelbad; affair with Walter Gropius.
• 15 July – August: Toblach; works on Tenth Symphony; marital crisis; Gropius in Toblach.
• 25-28 August: travels to Leiden to consult Freud.
• 29 August – 2 September: GM in Toblach.
• 3-11 September: rehearsals for Eighth Symphony in Munich; meets Thomas Mann.
• 12 September: first performance of Eighth Symphony at Munich Exhibition Centre.
• 13 September: repeat performance of Eighth Symphony in Munich.
• 8 October: exhibition of paintings by Schoenberg in Vienna.
• 12 October: GM attends performance of Schoenberg’s two string quartets in Vienna.
• 18 October: sets sail from Bremen (?), Alma travels via Paris for a secret meeting with Gropius, before joining GM at Cherbourg.
• 25 October: arrives in New York.
• 1 November 1910 – 21 February 1911: GM conducts 47 concerts, including seven in Brooklyn and eight on tour; among the works performed are his own Fourth Symphony, Strauss’s Also sprach Zarathustra, Debussy’s Ibéria and Rondes de printemps, Chabrier’s Ode à la Musique and España, Xaver Scharwenka’s Fourth Piano Concerto, Enescu’s Suite no. 9, Bizet’s Roma, Edward MacDowell’s Second Piano Concerto, George Whitefield Chadwick’s Melpomene Overture, Stanford’s Irish Symphony, Elgar’s Sea Pictures, Charles Martin Loeffler’s La Villanelle du diable and Henry Kimball Hadley’s The Culprit Fay.
• 20 November: concert in Brooklyn (Schumann’s Manfred, Brahms’s First Symphony, GM’s Ging heut’ morgens übers Feld and Rheinlegendchen, Lullaby from Smetana’s The Kiss, Dvorák’s Carnaval Overture and Smetana’s symphonic poem, Vltava).
• 5-10 December: second American tour, visiting Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Buffalo, Rochester, Syracuse and Utica with Beethoven’s Sixth Symphony; Christmas and New Year spent nursing sore throat.
1911
• 17 January: conducts Philharmonic concert (Pfitzner’s Overture to Das Käthchen von Heilbronn, first performance of revised version of Fourth Symphony and Strauss’s Ein Heldenleben).
• 22 and 29 January: Camille Chevillard conducts Fifth Symphony in Paris.
• 23 January: Fried conducts Seventh Symphony in Berlin.
• 24-25 January: GM conducts all-Wagner programme in Philadelphia and Washington, DC.
• 26 January: Joseph Lassalle conducts French première of Fourth Symphony with Munich Tonkünstler-Orchester.
• 28 January: Schuch conducts world première of Strauss’s Der Rosenkavalier in Dresden.
• 21 February: final concert in New York with Italian programme (Mendelssohn’s Italian Symphony, Leone Sinigaglia’s concert overture Le baruffe chiozzotte, Giuseppe Martucci’s Piano Concerto in B flat minor, Busoni’s Berceuse élégiaque and Marco Enrico Bossi’s Intermezzi goldoniani).
• 24 February: falls ill with slow endocarditis, initially diagnosed as influenza.
• 8 April: sails from New York on same vessel as Busoni and Stefan Zweig.
• 17 April: arrives in Paris and stays at Hôtel Élysée Palace.
• 21 April: taken to Dr Defaut’s clinic at 50 avenue du Roule, Neuilly.
• 11 May: leaves for Vienna.
• 12 May: admitted to Loew Sanatorium, 20 Mariannengasse.
• 18 May: dies at 23.05.
• 22 May: buried at Grinzing in the suburbs of Vienna.
• 20 November: in Munich Bruno Walter conducts the first performance of Das Lied von der Erde and the Second Symphony with the Tonkünstler-Orchester.
• December: Universal Edition publishes pocket score of Eighth Symphony and vocal score of Das Lied von der Erde.
1912
• 26 June: Bruno Walter conducts first performance of Ninth Symphony with Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra.
1920
• 6-21 May: Willem Mengelberg conducts a series of eight concerts of all GM’s orchestral works with Amsterdam Concertgebouw.
• 4-21 October: Fried conducts Mahler cycle at Vienna Konzertverein (all symphonies except Eighth).
1924
• 12 October: Franz Schalk conducts two movements of Tenth Symphony with Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra at the Opera.
1964
• 13 August: Berthold Goldschmidt conducts first complete performance of Tenth Symphony in Deryck Cooke’s performing version in London.

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